Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulation dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. Epidemiological findings reveal that women with PCOS tend to develop certain types of cancer due to their common metabolic and endocrine disorders. However, the mechanism that connects PCOS and oncogenesis has not been addressed. Here, in this review genomic status articles, transcription profiles and proteins of 264 genes related to PCOS (PRG) are evaluated in endometrial cancer (EC), ovarian cancer (OV) and breast cancer (BC) that explores the oncogenic database.
The Genome change of the PRG is significantly higher when compared to a series of non-disease genes in all types of cancer. PTEN has the highest number of mutations at EC, TP53, OC, and FSHR, at BC. Based on clinical data, women more than 50 years and black or African-American women carry the highest genome change ratio among all types of cancer. The most changing signaling path is P53 on EC and OC, while FC Epsilon RI in BC. After evaluating the PRG in normal tissue and cancer, the downregulation gene expressed is different is a common feature. Less than 30 proteins rise and downregulated in all contexts of cancer.
We identify 36 genes that are very modified, including divided between three types of cancer analyzed, involved in cell proliferation regulation, response to hormones and endogenous stimuli. Even though PHarmacogenomics PCOS studies are limited, 10 SNPs are reportedly related to drug responses. All are Missense mutations, except RS8111699, the introny variants are marked as regulatory elements and may bind the site for transcription factors. In conclusion, in Silico analysis revealed the main genes that might participate in PCOS and oncogenesis, which can help in the diagnosis of early cancer. Pharmacogenomics efforts have been involved in SNP in drug responses, but still can still be found.
Consideration when applying pharmacogenomics to your practice
Many practitioners who do not have pharmacogenomic education are needed to apply pharmacogenomics to their practice. Although many pharmacogenomic aspects are similar to traditional concepts of drug-drug interactions, there are some differences. We are looking for pubmed with pharmacogenomic and pharmacogenetic search terms (January 1, 2005, until December 31, 2019) and selected articles that support pharmacogenomic applications to practice. For inclusion, we provide a preference for national and international consortium guidelines for pharmacogenomic implementation. We discuss important considerations that are important in the application of pharmacogenomics to help doctors with orders, interpret, and apply pharmacogenomics in their practice.
Indo-Swiss Symposium About Progress in Pharmacogenomic Strategies for Implementation of Personal Medicine
Indo-Swiss Symposium About Progress In Pharmacogenomic Strategies For the implementation of personal treatment is done as part of the Integrated JIPM Pharmacogenomics program (Jipp), which is held in Puducherry, India on November 23, 2019. This symposium focuses on growth in pharmacogenomic information contributions in designing care strategies and promoting A better approach for personalized treatment. The main objective of this symposium is to bridge the gap in understanding the basics and progress recently in the field of pharmacogenomics. This symposium strives to promote the interaction between Indian and Swiss researchers to start collaborative research projects in the future. This symposium also functions as a platform for young researchers to present their research findings as posters for the audience.
Technology for Pharmacogenomics: Review
Continuous development of new genotype technology requires awareness of their potential excellence and limitations regarding utilities for pharmacogenomics (PGX). In this review, we provide an overview of technology that can be applied in PGX research and clinical practice. The most commonly used is a single nucleotide variant panel (SNV) which contains previously selected genetic variant panels. The SNV panel offers short settlement times and direct interpretation, making it suitable for clinical practice. However, they are limited in their ability to assess rare and structural variants.
The next generation sequencing (NGS) and a long reading sequencing is a promising technology for the PGX research field. Both NGS and old reading sequences often provide more data and more options related to outlining structural and rare variants compared to the SNV-specific panel, in connection with the number of variants that can be identified, as well as options for Haplotype phaseing. However, while it is useful for research, not all data sequencing can be applied to clinical practice. In the end, choosing the right technology is not a fact but the problem chooses the right technique for the right problem.
Graphacogenomic Review of buprenorfin for the treatment of opioid use disorders
When the epidemic of the opioid continues to grow throughout the United States, the number of patients who need treatment for opioid use disorders continues to climb. Although the medication assisted treatment presents a very effective tool that can help overcome this epidemic, its use has been limited. However, with a more easier dose protocol (compared to more complex doses needed by methadone due to long and variable half-life) and fewer recipe limitations (can be prescribed outside of federal approved clinic settings), increasing the use of buprenorphins in the United States has been dramatic in recent years.
Although the buprenorphine is shown efficacy, the specific factors of the patient can change the response to drugs, which can cause treatment failure in some patients. Clinical characteristics (gender, concurrent drugs, and mental health comorbidity) and social health determinants (housing status, involvement with criminal justice systems, and socioeconomic status) can affect the results of processing. Furthermore, the growing data agency shows that genetic variations can change pharmacological effects and affect therapeutic responses.
This review will include pharmacogenomic data available for buprenorphin use in managing opioid use disorders. Pharmacogenomic determinants that affect opioid receptors, dopaminergic systems, buprenorphine metabolism, and side effects are discussed. Although many data came from observational studies, clinical research was underway.