Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceived Barriers toward Genetic Testing and Pharmacogenomics among Healthcare Workers in the United Arab Emirates: A Cross-Sectional Study

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceived Barriers toward Genetic Testing and Pharmacogenomics among Healthcare Workers in the United Arab Emirates: A Cross-Sectional Study

In order to succeed in translating the scientific model of genetic testing and pharmacogenomics into clinical practice, empowering health workers with the right knowledge and functional understanding of the subjects is very important. Limited research in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has assessed the attitude of health workers to genomics. This study aims to assess the knowledge and attitudes of health workers about genetic testing.

A cross-sectional study is carried out among health care workers practicing in hospitals or public or private clinics as pharmacists, nurses, doctors, managers, and ally health. Participants were recruited randomly and through snowball techniques. The survey was collected between April and September 2019; Of the 552 respondents, 63.4% were women, the average age was 38 (± 9.6) years.

The average knowledge score is 5.2 (± 2.3) of nine, which shows a fair level of knowledge. The pharmaceutical respondent score is 5.1 (± 2.5), medicine 6.0 (± 2.0), and breastfeeding 4.8 (± 2.1). All participants show a fair level of knowledge of genetic testing and pharmacogenomics. From respondents, 91.9% showed a positive attitude regarding the availability of genetic testing.

The top obstacles identified for implementation are testing costs (62%), followed by a lack of training or education and insurance coverage (57.8% and 57.2%). Building a positive attitude and handling obstacles and challenges will open the way for fully implementation of genetic testing and pharmacogenomics in the UAE. We recommend empowering health workers by increasing the competencies needed and designed related to their practice fields. We strongly urge stakeholders to streamline and compare workflows, algorithms, and guidelines for relieving health and electronic systems. Finally, we advocate to use technology and electronic decision support and translation reports to back up health workers in the UAE.

Pharmacogenomics: precision tools in routine recipes

Pharmacogenomics is a tool that appears to increase the efficacy and safety of drug care through DNA analysis in genes related to drug concentration (pharmacokinetics) and drug acts (pharmacodynamics). Doctors need to integrate genome data in their benefit risk assessment and then provide the right drug to the right patient at the right time. This tool can help prevent an ineffective treatment, choose the right dose and reduce the reaction of a detrimental drug that is common in current practices under the models of adjustments.

Pharmacogenomics may have a broad impact on children who are unique to improve better relationships between medical professionals and children affected or their guardians and to increase drug compliance. Doctors must embrace progress in pharmacogenomics and actively participate in clinical research to identify alleles related to ancestors and develop a special population gene panel. This will allow patients to enjoy more achievements in pharmacogenomics by implementing them in the first clinical practice row.

What students think in Pharmacy and Medicine About Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medical Education? Awareness, attitude, and perception in Malaysian health science

This study reported attitudes and perceptions of Pharmacogenomics (PGX) and personalized education (PM) education between pharmaceutical and medical students in Malaysian health sciences. What is important, the survey was developed through a codesign approach, with pretesting fields / design with users before the actual survey, and based on collaboration between institutions in Greece and Malaysia. The study discusses eight main areas that attract education in health sciences: (1) General awareness of genetics and PGX, (2) attitudes towards the usefulness of genetic testing, (3) benefits of testing private genome to consumers as “diagnostics.” Tools, (4) Concerns about genetics, (5) Effectiveness of genetic testing at PM, (6) PGX benefits about disease management, (7) PGX benefits about drug management, and (8) attitudes towards genetics testing public ratification.

We observed that Malaysian students seemed to be aware of the term PGX, but there was a critical knowledge gap area such as the need for greater familiarity with the concept of PGX implementation science, and the availability of genetic testing in clinical practice. This is one of the first studies of perceptions and attitudes towards PGX testing in Southeast Asia. This finding provides a map of views and medical perspectives and pharmaceutical students regarding PGX and Implementation of PM in Malaysia and must help facilitate genomic integration into the process of medical decision making.

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceived Barriers toward Genetic Testing and Pharmacogenomics among Healthcare Workers in the United Arab Emirates: A Cross-Sectional Study

For this purpose, it is necessary to increase collaboration between universities, health care institutions, and regulatory bodies to include further training and additional education topics related to PGX and genetic testing. This is the first study to assess the level of knowledge of PGX and genomics of pharmaceutical and medical students in Southeast Asia, Malaysia in particular, and thus paved the way to guide the knowledge of the implementation of global PGX in the future.

Genomics asthma and pharmacogenomics

In this review, we summarize published jobs recently interrogated the relationship between genetic variations or gene expression regulations throughout the genome and asthma or the results of asthma treatment. These include 11 study of genome associations from phenotypes of asthma which collectively identified 64 loci novels; The Association of Transcript Associations-width Association that identifies genes involved in the introduction of viruses, bacterial infections, lung tissue renovation, inflammation and eosinophilic and neutrophilic genes in the vulnerability of the 17q12 chromosome asthma vulnerability; and three epigenome studies of asthma which have a strong sample size and replicated findings.

We also highlighted the study of corticosteroid pharmacogenomics, bronchodilator response to Albuterol and Zileuton, although the findings of this study may still be early due to relatively small sample size and limited availability of replication cohorts.